Discussion Paper

# Weak Convergence of Sample Covariance Matrices to Stochastic Integrals via Martingale Approximations

Under general conditions the sample covariance matrix of a vector martingale and its diﬀerences converges weakly to the matrix stochastic integral from zero to one of ∫01BdB’, where B is vector Brownian motion. For strictly stationary and ergodic sequences, rather than martingale diﬀerences, a similar result obtains. In this case, the limit is ∫01BdB’ + Λ and involves a constant matrix Λ, of bias terms whose magnitude depends on the serial correlation properties of the sequence.