Publication Date: May 2019
A critical element of word of mouth (WOM) or buzz marketing is to identify seeds, often central actors with high degree in the social network. Seed identiﬁcation typically requires data on the full network structure, which is often unavailable. We therefore examine the impact of WOM seeding strategies motivated by the friendship paradox to obtain more central nodes without knowing network structure. But higher-degree nodes may communicate less with neighbors; therefore whether friendship paradox motivated seeding strategies increase or reduce WOM and adoption remains an empirical question. We develop and estimate a model of WOM and adoption using data on microﬁnance adoption across 43 villages in India for which we have data on social networks. Counterfactuals show that the proposed seeding strategies are about 15-20% more eﬀective than random seeding in increasing adoption. Remarkably, they are also about 5-11% more eﬀective than opinion leader seeding, and are relative more eﬀective when we have fewer seeds.
Keywords: Word of mouth, Networks, seeding, Friendship paradox, Product adoption, diffusion
JEL Classification Codes: D85, D13, G21, L14, O12, O16, Z13