Publication Date: August 1998
Many advocates of social security privatization argue that rates of return under a deﬁned contribution individual account system would be much higher for all than they are under the current social security system. This claim is false. The mistake comes from ignoring accrued beneﬁts already promised based on past payroll taxes, and from underestimating the riskiness of stock investments.
Confusion arises because three distinct reforms are muddled. By privatization we mean creating individual accounts (which could, for example, be invested exclusively in bonds). By diversiﬁcation we mean investing in stocks, and perhaps other assets, as well as bonds; diversiﬁcation might be undertaken either by individuals in their private social security accounts, or by the social security trust fund. By prefunding we mean closing the gap between social security beneﬁts promised to date and the assets on hand to pay for them. Any one of these reforms could be implemented without the other two.
If the system were completely privatized, with no prefunding or diversiﬁcation, the social security system would need to raise taxes and/or issue new debt in order to pay beneﬁts already accrued. If the burden were spread evenly across all future generations via a constant proportional tax, the added taxes would completely eliminate any rate of return advantage on the individual accounts. We estimate that the required new taxes would amount to about 3 percent of payroll, or about a quarter of all social security contributions, in perpetuity. Unlike privatization, prefunding would raise rates of return for later generations, but at the cost of lower returns for today’s workers.
For households able to invest in the stock market on their own, diversiﬁcation would not raise rates of return, correctly adjusted to recognize risk. Households that are constrained from holding stock, due to lack of wealth outside of social security or to ﬁxed costs from holding stocks, would gain higher risk-adjusted returns and would beneﬁt from diversiﬁcation. If this group is large, diversiﬁcation would raise stock values, thus helping current stockholders, but it would lower future stock returns, thus hurting young unconstrained households. Overall, since the number of truly constrained household is probably not that large, privatization and diversiﬁcation would have a much smaller eﬀect on returns than reformers typically claim.